Competition law/Anti-trust legislation

No progress
Japanese Competition Law includes recognition of “market power” with minor shares in vertical restraint, and “superior bargaining power” irrespective of dependence, which differs from global practice. The Subcontractor Law lacks bright-line rules, and “yellow card” infringement notices lack explanation.


  • Japanese Competition Law/Subcontractor Law should be harmonised with global practices.
  • The “yellow card” system, not transparent and lacks both a legal basis and bright-line rules, should be abolished.