Public procurement

The public procurement market continues to be an important market and with the improved access thanks to the EU-Japan EPA, which resulted in the removal of the Operational Safety Clause.


  • The Government of Japan should ensure that, when planning renewal of systems with new technologies such as CBTC (Communication-Based Train Control) as well as planning new lines or line extensions, local governments and entities covered by the WTO GPA abide by or use the GPA as guidance to set up a proper public procurement scheme.
  • The Japanese Government should promote off-the-shelf solutions.