Japan should expand/upgrade the already-selected marshalling ports (Akita, Noshiro, Kashima and Kitakyushu) and/or develop additional marshalling ports and make them ready preferably by 2027 so that all or most of the round 2 and 3 projects would be able to start their offshore installation campaign from 2028 and to make the wind farms operational by 2030. Considering the ambition of Japan to introduce 5.7GW offshore wind capacity by 2030 and the rapid growth in a unit capacity of offshore wind turbines, we recommend Japanese authorities to take into account the following elements to ensure marshalling ports would not hinder the mentioned Japan’s ambition.
- A single marshalling port should have sufficient capacities and functions which can support installation of foundations and/or wind turbines equivalent to 1-2 GW every year. In specific;
- Large area for storing foundations, turbines, cables, etc. and for preassembling works
- Long and/or multiple quays to allow several vessels for unloading and/or loading out simultaneously
- Sufficient bearing capacity for assembling and storing a tower for a 20MW wind turbine
- Sufficient bearing capacity at quay side where a next generation Jack Up Vessel (e.g., 3,200 ton lifting capacity) can jack up for loading out foundations for a 20MW turbine.
- A single marshalling port should have sufficient capacities and functions which can support installation of foundations and/or wind turbines equivalent to 1-2 GW every year. A marshalling port should be large enough to attract and encourage companies to start providing the services necessary for offshore wind development (e.g., bunkering, food/water supply, vessel repair & maintenance works) with reasonable price.
- A large marshalling port should allow itself to have emergency response capabilities (e.g., rescue, salvage, prevention of oil pollution) which is also essential for offshore wind development.