General environment

No progress
The approval system for satellite projects and the handling of future PPP projects hold risks of protectionism. The EBC advocates increasing, not reducing, trade and cooperation. More openness to European industry would benefit Japan. This especially as Europe provides many technologies free from “black-box” technology concealment policies. In the U.S., billionaires expand their assets further on the basis of the U.S.'s large government demand, with an impact on the commercial market. American companies with enormous capital and a large governmental market solidify their competitiveness through physical concentration. China and India are also rising. Japan and Europe are facing common threats never experienced before. In both Japan and Europe, development funds and government demand are limited. In order to maintain a space industry and an independent access to space, establishing a strategic partnership should be urgently considered. After the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russia suspended Arianespace’s Soyuz launcher operations. This suspension and the delay of Ariane 6 cause a European launch capacity shortage. The potential of the idea of the Japan-Europe mutual backup of institutional satellite launches is getting bigger and bigger.


  • Satellite projects with both government and commercial aspects should not be declared “governmental” for the purpose of excluding the participation of foreign industry.
  • The EBC urges continued Japanese cooperation with European space agencies. Space agencies on both sides can compare their projects at an early stage and take advantage of cooperation opportunities.
  • The European Space Agency (ESA) should consider establishing a permanent representation in Japan.
  • Japan should also encourage more cooperation between the Japanese and European space industries on satellite platforms and ground systems.
  • The EBC believes that boosting Japan-Europe cooperation is indispensable in order to respond to the rapidly changing space environment and common threats, and requests that action be taken to make this possible.
  • The discussion of Japan-Europe mutual backup cooperation regarding institutional satellites should resume.
  • An agreement regarding the treatment of sensitive information should by signed between Japan and Europe (ESA, EC, ...) to facilitate the mutual backup of institutional satellites.